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What is Georgia’s political system and how does it work?

The political structure of Georgia, this republic located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, intrigues and provokes study. This country, which has had a republican parliamentary system since its last reform in 2013, operates a separation of powers between the legislature, the executive and the judiciary, within the framework of a representative democracy. Analyzing the mechanisms that govern power in Georgia, this article details the preponderant role of Parliament – ​​the Supreme Council – in the fiscalization of the government and the development of laws. At the same time, we decipher the prerogatives and the scope of influence of the Georgian President, head of state playing an essentially ceremonial role since the constitutional revision. Understanding the functioning of the Georgian political system is essential to grasp the issues that characterize its internal dynamics and its interaction with the international scene.

Historical overview of the Georgian political system

find out everything you need to know about the political system, how it works and its role in society.
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Georgia, a nation located on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, has experienced a complex and heterogeneous political journey, marked by foreign influences, periods of sovereignty and democratic reform movements. Its history reflects a continuing quest for independence and political stability.

Soviet Influence and Independence

During the 20th century, after a period of domination by the Russian Empire, Georgia was absorbed into Soviet Union. This era is characterized by the establishment of a socialist political system, centered around the absolute power of Communist Party. Domestic and foreign policy is tightly controlled by Moscow, putting Georgian national aspirations on the back burner.

The breakup of the USSR paved the way for Georgia’s independence in 1991. The country then adopted a political system pluralistic, marking a significant turning point in its national constitution and its political orientations.

Transition to Democracy

After independence, Georgia entered a transitional period, with the implementation of reforms aimed at establishing an authentic democratic framework. The adoption of the 1995 Constitution is a significant milestone, establishing a republican government accompanied by a presidentialism strong. The president then holds considerable executive power, raising concerns about the balance of power.

Constitutional Developments

Over the years, various constitutional amendments aim to balance and distribute power between the executive, legislative and judicial branches. Such dynamics reflect the desire to mitigate the risks of concentration of power and to establish a real separation of powers. In 2012, a major reform resulted in the reduction of presidential powers in favor of the Parliament and Prime Minister, transforming the system into a parliamentary republic.

Within this reformed system, the Georgian Parliament, elected by universal suffrage, plays a central role in the legislative process and in the control of the executive. Political diversity is represented there, with a multiplicity of political parties, although the political landscape remains marked by a certain polarization.

Contemporary Period and Current Challenges

In the contemporary period, Georgia continues to navigate between its desire to deepen democratic reforms and geopolitical challenges. The pressure for increasing integration with European structures, such asEuropean Union and theNATO, coexists with the need to manage tensions in the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia.

Maintaining a viable democratic system in Georgia requires constant vigilance in the face of the challenges of corruption, of freedom of press, and respect for human rights. The continued commitment to reforms and the aspiration to an independent judiciary are crucial aspects of the country’s future political stability.

This historical trajectory demonstrates a political system in constant evolution, illustrating the complexities of post-communism and efforts to establish democratic governance in a difficult geopolitical context. Georgia remains a fascinating example of political resilience and the desire for democratic change.

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